In research looking at early grade reading behaviors in communities, Another Option found that parents talk to other parents about ways to help their children do well in school. We developed a Peer Education training module that social mobilizers used in Nepal to train parents on how to engage with other parents and what simple practices they can adapt to help their children learn to read and do well in school.
The module has proven to be effective in our Early Grade Reading Program in Nepal and has been adapted to fit the needs and concerns of Liberian parents, as part of the USAID Read Liberia activity. Working with the Ministry of Education in Liberia, Another Option has pre-tested the peer education module, adapted it to the Liberian setting, and will pilot it in several communities. It is approved by the Ministry and USAID/Liberia.
We are sharing the evidence-based materials here to be used freely. However, we ask you to please give credit to USAID/Liberia and Another Option LLC when reproducing any of the materials.
May 4, 2017. There are so many wonderful experiences from the USAID/Nepal Early Grade Reading Program that Another Option is working on. Applying the behavior theories and strategies we use in our health and energy being utilized in education and early grade reading to encourage parents (…and grandparents and older siblings) to read with their children is one exciting experience.
Research shows that the most effective way to change behavior is through one-on-one experience or interpersonal communication. I saw it in action last week (April 24 ) when I attended a parent meeting in Bhaktapur, Nepal. The parents could not stop talking about their children….and especially their desire for them to learn how to read and to achieve beyond what they as parents have.
The meeting was a parent (peer) education training session conducted by the program’s social mobilizers. Another Option developed the training guide the mobilizers are using to get parents to talk to other parents about the importance of Early Grade Reading and share tips on how they can go from desire for their children to read and excel to actually taking the necessary steps. The guide is posted on the web site (link).
It is powerful for parents to know that they are not doing this alone and that other parents are also trying to fit in time to read with their children with work outside of the home. Parents (peers) who have experience with reading at home share ideas and tips with parents such as relieving the child from some household chores to study and read each night and listening while the child reads for 10 minutes each day.
Parents and grandparents attended the training session, are a mix of residents and migrant families who live there for work. Parents learned the importance of early grade reading, talked about their ideas for
This is one of 250 trainings that will be held in this district in the next three months.
“My grandfather inspired me to read and always brought me books. Now when I travel, I always remember to bring back books for my children.”
Pushpa Basnet, CNN Hero 2016-17
“In the 2014 earthquake, houses with strong foundation withstood the damage. Early grade reading is the foundation to improve our children’s future.”
Mr. Baburam Poudel, Director General, Department of Education (DOE)
“Teaching is all encompassing – it is as cultural, social and familial process.”
Dhananjaya Sharma, Education Expert
The commitment and resolve of these statements reflect the focus of the media orientation workshop organized by the Department of Education (DOE) and the USAID-funded Early Grade Reading Program (EGRP).
Held on February 6 in Kathmandu, the workshop was the first opportunity for 28 Nepali print and broadcast media journalists to come together and understand the program and their role in strengthening the program. Using presentations and group discussions, Focal Person, Bishnu Adhikari, Deputy Director, DOE and EGRP Chief of Party, Edward Graybill along with other technical team leads, shared strategic ideas about the relationship between EGRP and the government’s National Early Grade Reading Program (NEGRP).
Further, participants received information packets with community mobilization and peer advocacy materials, developed and designed by the program, with the intention to facilitate better communication amongst beneficiary parents and between parents and teachers about children’s reading habit.
Mr. Baburam Poudel, Director General, Department of Education welcomed the participants and opened the workshop by reiterating the critical nature of quality early grade reading and stressed all involved stakeholders to work in tandem to improve access, quality and management of primary education.
Education expert, Mr. Dhananjaya Sharma called for teachers and other stakeholders in primary education to encourage two-way interactions with students and to change classroom settings to make it child-friendly among others.
Special guests at the orientation included comments by Ms. Basnet, named as a CNN Hero in 2016-2017. She stressed the importance of reading in her own personal development from a shy student to a confident woman.
Deputy Director Mr. Adhikari spoke at length about the National Early Grade Reading Program (NEGRP) and raised issues about program’s implementation including ownership of the program, lack of technical resources and lack of commitment of policy making and implementation.
A key message that came out of the interaction between the journalists and the EGRP and the government teams was that a strong sense of camaraderie and commitment to this important work was required from all stakeholders to implant the love for reading in Nepali children from the very early grades.
A similar workshop will be organized in Bhaktapur, Kaski, Banke, Saptari and Kanchanpur districts in February and March
This blog was prepared by Adheep Pokhrel, Communication Manager for USAID/Nepal’s Early Grade Reading Program managed by RTI International
Word of mouth or peer education is still the most reliable way to get information. Making sure that information is correct or accurate is another story.
One of Another Option’s role under USAID/Nepal’s Early Grade Reading Program managed by RTI International is to create awareness among parents of children in grades one through three about the benefits of reading, and for children to read outside of schools at home, reading corners, and libraries.
With the Ministry of Education, we developed a peer education guide to encourage parents to talk to other parents. Our research showed that parents talked to other parents about maneuvering their way through the school culture and to assure parents received good advice on what to do for their children to succeed.
Approved by the Ministry of Education and USAID/Nepal, the guide is in English and Nepali with plans to translate into three other languages. The training kit consists of three components: trainer guide, participant guide, and wall hanging with recommended behaviors and activities for parents.
An electronic version will be posted for any to use. Please give credit to USAID/Nepal. Drawings and illustrations by Keshar Joshi.
Factors Influencing Rural Women’s Decisions about Sanitation in Lao PDR
Another Option’s social and behavior change communication (SBCC) is designed to reflect target audiences’ personal motivations and beliefs and the cultural and environmental factors that influence them. SBCC strategies range from mass media and digital communication to social impact gaming. It also includes interpersonal communication (IPC) and peer education, and advocacy and public relations to affect policy change and cultural and social norms.
Creating an enabling environment that supports individual and societal change requires a strategic approach. Societal and cultural norms as well as policy and regulations are the barriers that prevent change. Advocacy activities range from strategic public relations, thought-leader meetings, and engagement or participation in problem solving.
Program design begins with data and Another Option has extensive experience in designing qualitative and quantitative research to offer insights and information about key populations and segment audiences and to design effective programs.
Under a World Bank-funded program, Another Option developed a social and behavior change communication program on rural sanitation in Lao PDR. Other donors include UNICEF, Plan International, and SNV Netherlands Development Organisation. Dr. Cecile Lantican led the Lao activity and following a field visit meeting with women in the communities and rural areas she captured her observations in the following blog.
What motivates women?
By Cecile Lantican, Ph.D.
From June 7-13, 2015 I joined the team of Another Option LLC, commissioned by World Bank under the Water and Sanitation Program in Lao PDR to observe people’s motivation to change and improve their sanitation practices. This is a new assignment for me after six years working in this country on changing people’s mindset and behaviors that put them to risk when they interact with their domestic animals and wildlife that carry zoonotic diseases.
I attended a ceremony hosted by the Pinh District government in Savannakhet to recognize villages that have made progress in addressing poverty and achieved improved sanitation status (declared Open Defecation free). I talked with Lao women and listened to their stories about their aspirations, needs and motivations that may have influenced their decision to seek for better status in life. I was amazed and fascinated interacting with Lao women from the south who I saw to be very hardworking, loyal to their families, hospitable and warm to visitors.
Outlining the situation of rural women in Lao
I have worked with rural and urban women in this country, but I noticed that there is limited scientific information about how Lao women make decisions that affect their lives. Ethnic, geographic, and ecological differences create variations in the Lao women’s way of life. Ethnicity persists through language and dress patterns.
Illiteracy among rural women is high, especially in certain ethnic groups where cultural attitudes hinder girls from going to school. Parents force them to drop out to assist with the farm or domestic chores. Their capacity to obtain employment and participate in decision-making is severely hampered by their low level of education.
Early marriage is common among rural women. Most of them marry at the age of 16 or 17 years. A UN report in 2012 revealed that almost twice as many women marry and bear children before the age of 18 in rural areas (43%) than urban areas (23%). The total number of children of women with no education is nearly three times greater than that of women with higher education1.
The majority of women, especially those in ethnic communities, suffer from poverty, food insecurity, and unavailability of health services. The Lao women carry a great responsibility in the family. Apart from housework, and child rearing, they are also engaged in generating income for the family through labor-intensive work like collecting non-timber forest products including wild animals, weeding in the rice paddy, harvesting, planting cash crops and selling these products in the local markets, tending their animals, weaving, and managing family food stores.
Rural women face complex decision-making when it comes to meeting their basic needs. Most often, they follow their elders’ advice. They feel restrained from expressing what they actually have wanted to happen in their lives.
The critical role of education for women
In Ban Sa-phang village, Mounlapamok district in Champasack province, a young mother of a three-year old boy married when she was nineteen. She did not finish primary school because she had to stop and help her parents on the farm. She married the first man who came into her life who promised her a better future since he was working in Thailand.
She was emotional when she sad, “I dreamt of living in a big house and wanted to earn money to buy food for my family, but that did not realize. My husband’s income from being a construction worker at the border, and most of the times seasonal, is not even enough for us.”
She recognized that lack of education hampered her from finding work outside the farm. Unlike other women in her village who had entered their first year of secondary school and worked as migrant workers, she could not find work off the farm.
Women supporting their families
Anecdotal evidence showed that an increasing number of undocumented Lao women migrate to Thailand as workers in service and domestic sectors, vulnerable to abuse, exploitation and human trafficking.
Madame Bunkhong, 55 years old, was one among the attendees of the ceremony in Pinh district. She married at twenty-two and had four children.
After college, she worked in a private bank. But after two years, she had to stop working to take care of her sick father and to help her mother manage a small food stall at home. “I gave up my desire of being an employed and earn money for myself because I needed to follow my family’s decision.”
“If I had complete control of my life before, I wouldn’t give up my dreams.” She affirmed that she is happy with her own family now, but it could have been more self-fulfilling if she had decided for herself.
Making decisions to improve sanitation
Looking closely at rural women who chose to access improved sanitation, I approached a woman who attended the PSI and district Nam Saat-led sales event for latrines. Her name is Madame Tongkham, 30 years old. She has three children. She married at eighteen. Six months ago, her husband left them. She was aware that he may never comeback having heard that he has another woman.
It was her third time attending the latrine sales event in the village. The village council members encouraged her to attend. Earlier, she could not decide for herself because she needed to consult her husband. During this event, she ordered from the sales agent the delivery of one latrine package worth LAK 500,000. She made a deposit of LAK 50,000. “I felt devastated when my husband left. I worry about my three boys, and my old and sickly mother living with us. I have no regular income. My family now only relies on my niece who works in Thailand,” she said. “I did not finish school. I can only do farming and sometimes go with neighbors to the nearby village to harvest coffee beans. From these activities, I earn some amount to buy food for the boys,” she added.
I asked if someone had discussed the health risk of defecating in the open with her. She replied, “ No one gave us briefing on the health risk. But I do remember that sales agent told us that having a toilet would give us convenience, safety and privacy.”
What made you decide to have the toilet this time?, I asked. “I have waited for my husband to decide.” She continued in her low voice. “ I need this toilet. I have fears when my boys defecate in the river along with other young boys. Many young boys have died of drowning in the river. My old mother needs it too,” she said.
Laotian women as community leaders
Laotian women’s confidence and self-esteem increase when they have greater knowledge, economic assets and income-earning capacity. Their low participation in decision-making is often due to stereotypes in their culture, which assign men the role of decision maker in the family and domestic affairs.
I met two Lao Women Union (LWU) community leaders at the ceremony. The district government recognized their unwavering support to uplift the living conditions and promote the role of rural women through training and participation in community affairs where their knowledge, skills and decision-making are essential.
The two women received training on various women-related issues from the national chapter of LWU that would empower rural women. Under the rural poverty reduction program of their district, they include provision of information on importance of education, sanitation and hygiene.
This travel provided me anecdotal evidences that rural women in Lao PDR can decide for themselves and their families. Under difficult circumstances, they can cope with their situation and can find solutions to their problems. They can improve their social status if given the opportunity of social support, correct information and networking.
1 Country Analysis Report: Lao PDR. Analysis to inform the selection of priorities for the next UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2012-2015, UN in Lao PDR , Vientiane.
One of our partners, Girl Rising, a global action campaign for women’s education, are doing amazing work to advance the availability of education to women around the world. Check their website to see when the ground-breaking documentary, Girl Rising, will be shown near you.
The World Bank launched in Nairobi today its new Service Delivery Indicators Initiative – www.sdindicators.org and @WBAfrica – a rigorous evidence-based tool that provides a status report on health and education service delivery.
Working initially in six countries – Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, Uganda, Togo, and Senegal – with plans to expand to a total of 30 African countries….SDI makes available to policy leaders and decision makers as well as the general public information (data) so they can adequately assess the quality of health and education services and help in making informed decisions related to resource allocations.
Twenty indicators – 10 in health and 10 in education –
Visit the web site – www.sdindicators.org and congratulations to WB for this unique initiative